In the last Pleistocene Age about 10,000 B.C., the bottom of the Arabian Sea rose up by the tectonec movement and formed the level mass available on the Western Coast known as the Malabar Coast. Goa forms a part of that land mass. This movement broke the huge late rite caps of the rocks and threw them into the sea where we today find evidence of the same. Evidence of this is also found in the discovery of the conch shell in Surla village, fossilized marine conches discovered near Surla and basalitic pillars discovered near Riva village. We also have evidence of coral reefs at Malvan and near Mormugoa harbour. The dating of the coral reefs at Netiana islands also establishes the same findings.Arch of the Viceroys or Viceroys Arch in Old GoaThe land so exposed continued to be washed by the rains till about 9000 B.C., there was a change of climate. The atmosphere became arid leading to cyclones. The vegetation was de­stroyed and the trees uprooted. Some pieces of the trees got fossilized and today we discover such pieces. Around 8500 B.C., the Monsoons started wash­ing the land. This gradually changed the original hydrographic system into the present age of Fauna and Flora. The land thus became suitable for habitation.The Historians believe that during this period, the settlers in South India were Australoids, with the Negrito being a part of the same race, but sepa­rated. Over a period of tinae, the two led to different tribal groups. The find­ings in Goa can lead one to surmise that Early Man settled in this Area not earlier than 10,000 B.C. Then he was perhaps roving and only around 8500 B.C. did he have permanent set­tlements. Iron implements have been found dated about 3000 B.C. The rov­ing hands gave way about 6000 B.C. to more permanent pastoral tribes from South India. They domesticated ani­mals and had knowledge of farming of plants and cereals. These were wor­shippers of stone symbols of the fe­male and male elements.

It seems that later on about 5500 years ago, a tribe known as Asura appeared on the scene from the area around Chota Nagpur. They used crude iron implements and did agriculture with the cut and burn meth­ods. Cereals were produced by them. Another 500 years later the Kol, Mundari and Khariwa tribesmen coming from the same area as the Asura forced their way in the Area. The Kols occu­pied the land," prepared paddy fields and set up a sort of collective village’s administration. They had knowledge of rotation of land for cultivation. The Mundaris worked, perhaps, as work­ers while the Kharwas took to fishing and boating. It can be safely presumed that the tribal customs of these three tribes were the same.Historians like Anand Ramakrishna Sinai Dhume have found evidence of Sumerian influence and culture in Goa. The discoveries of Sumerian signs in a late rite Cave at SavoiVere, as well as other signs of this influence are traced by Dhume. In his opinion, 'the wealth of archaeological, socioreligious, cul­tural anthropological, sociopolitical, legal evidence as well as the compara­tive study of ancient Sumerian soci­ety and its impact' show positive signs of Sumerian settlements in Goa around 2000 B.C.

Arch of the Viceroys or Viceroys Arch in Old GoaThe first wave of the Aryans came about 2400 B.C. and settled in Goa, they brought with them the Vedic ideas. They were joined by the Sumerians in about 2000 B.C. A second wave of Aryans came about 700 B.C. These consisted of Bhojas, Chediyas and Saraswatis Brahmins, while these tribes were in the area of Goa for quite a few hundred years, the copper plates which are the only real evidence of these rulers namely the Bhojas are only available of a much later period. The Devaraja Shiroda copper plate is sued from Chandraura (present Chander) village of Salcete Taluka gives us information of the grants and names of officials. The exact dating is difficult. The Asamkita Hire Gutle cop per place tells of King Asamkita of Bhoja Dynasty and his gifts of land to a Buddhist Vihara. The Asamkitavar man Ropbli copper plate talks of a grant made to a Brahmin. The Kapar divarma Arya copper plate state sabout the gift made by King Kapar divarman of the Bhoja Dynasty. The language is Sanskrit and in prose. The Prithvimallavarman Bandode cop per plate. States about the grant made by King Prithvimallavarman of Bhoja lineage to a Madhavarya of the Agni veshya Gotra. The Prithvimallavarman Bandode copper place B is a charter granted by King Prithvimavaflayar man of the Bhoja dynasty to Damarya of the Bhardwaja Gotra.The Anirjitav arman Bandode copper plate is in Sanskrit language. The charter is writ ten in prose and is attributed to 6th century A.D.

The character is of Konkan Maurya Maharaja Anirjitavarman. The Chandravarman 'Shivapur copper plate describes the grant made by King Chandravarman to a monastery situated at Shivapur. These plates are evidences of the fact that the Boas were ruling in the Goa Area for some period of time between the 6th and the 7th century. There is also evidence of the Konkan Mauryas ruling partially over the area occupied by the Bhojas. The Mauryas in turn were subdued by the Chalukyas of Badami. We have according to Dr. V.T. Gune as many as eight copper plate grants of the Chalukya Emperors of Badami. A.R.S. Dhume disputes some of these cop­per plates as evidence of the Chalukya rule in Goa. We have the copper plate of Pulakesin II of the period A.D. 61142. At worst we can presume that while evidence is lacking to completely link Goa under the sway of the chalukyas till the Silaharas of South Konkan took over from them, we can presume that the Chalukyas may have continued their control over Goa area.

The Silaharas ruled in Goa from 750 to 1020 A.D. We have two copper plates from Kharepatna which tell us that Shanaphulla, the founder of the Goa Dynasty of Shilahara of South Konkana obtained the lordship of Sinhala (Simhalesha) from Krishna I of the Rastrakuta Dynasty. Krishna I suc­ceeded Dantedurga in A.D. 759. He ruled from 76595. Aiyapa, the Shi­lahara King, invaded Chandrapura and celebrated his victory over that king­dom by bathing in coconut water. He ruled from 82045 A.D. Avasara II (892920 A.D.), son of Adityavarman, suc­ceeded him. He also helped the rul­ers of Chandrapura and Chamulya, The Chikodec Plate of Avasara III states that Bhima (94570 A.D.) an­nexed Chandramandala. Rattaraja (9951020 A.D.) acknowledges suze­rainty of Tailapa, the Chalukya King in A.D 980. He also refers to Satyashraya, the son of Tailapa. An­other grant of Rattaraja is dated 24th December A.D. 1010. The Shilahara Rule in Goa seems to have ended within about 15 years of this grant. Jayasimha II, brother of Chalukya Vikramaditya V invaded Goa and took over the Area, ending the Konkan Silahara rule. The Kolapur Shilaharas who seem to have been made over­lords of Goa by the Chalukyas and the Thana Silaharas as per the Kharapata plate of Anantadeva of the Thana Shilaharas, were always fighting for the suprmacy of the entire Konkan area. This lead to Shashthadeva II of the Kadambas to takeover Southern Konkan.

The stone record of Gurdi (Sangue Taluka) states that Kantacharyas alias Shastadeva I (960 A.D) settled in the Goa Area of Astagrahar (Sangue Taluka) and Konkan Taluka along with the parts of North Kanara. The Goa Kadambas have left a number of inscriptions from which we can trace out their geneology from 960 A.D. to 1300 A.D. We have the Ganadevi Stone inscriptions of Shashthadeva II dated A.D. 1042, Sawaivarm plate of his son Guhalladeva II dated A.D. 1038; the Curtorium copper plate of his second son Viravamadeva A.D. 1049: the Gudikatti stone inscription of his youngest son Jayakesha A.D. 1052; Goa plate of Jayakesha I dated A.D. 1053; the stone inscription of Jayakesha II of Narendra dated A.D. 1125. The Demgave record of Shivachitta Kadamba dated A.D. 1174; the Kirhalasige Stone Inscription dated 118687 A.D. which states that Jayakesha II caused the Chalukyas and cholas to become friends at Kanchi: the Bandora Goa plate dated A.D. 1262, and the stone inscription of Shashthadeva III at Kaliyuga dated 126364 A.D., etc.

Ruined fort near Goa but just within Maharashtra state India AsiaThe Kadambas ruled over Goa and South Konkan practically as the feudatories of the Chalukyas of Kalyani (A.D. 9731162). After this when the Yadavas of Devagiri supplanted the Chalukyas, the Kadambas became their feudatories. At times, the Kadambas acted independent of both. The Goa Kadambas had their earlier capital at Banavasi. They took advantages of the weakness of the Bhojas and occupied Khanapur and Sampagoan Talukas of Belgaum district. When they expanded in the Konkan, they made Chandor on the bank of River Paroda as their capital. Later on, it looks as if, about 1049 A.D. the capital was shifted to Gopaka (modern Vodlem Goem) on the bank of River Zuari by Vikramadeva. Kantakacharya alias Shashtha I (960 A.D.) perhaps was the founder of the dynasty. He was perhaps a contemporary of the Chalukya King Taila II who overthrew the Rastrakutas. It is very possible that Kantakacharya who as per the Sawai Verm plate established many kings ~ helped Taila II and also established the Kadamba Rule in Chandrapur. His grandson Guhalladeva I (9801005 A.D.) was enjoying greater powers Shashthadeva II (100542 A.D.) succeeded Guhalladeva I. He married the daughter of Vajjada, the Silahara King of Konkan. The Silaharas were weakened during his reign and he helped Jayasimha the Chalukya King to conquer South Konkan. In the process he annexed the South Konkan of the Goa Silaharas and also invaded North Konkan of the Thana Silaharas. The Thana Silaharas accepted him as overlord and King Mammuri (102542 A.D.) of Thana Silaharas gave his daughter in marriage to Shashthadeva II. He made many pilgrimages to Somnath, Mahableshwar, Kolhapur, etc. He also married the sister of the Chalukya Emperor Jayasimha II. Chandrapur seems to have become a big and beautiful city during his reign. His area of control seems to have extended from Saurashtra to North Kanara and the Silaharas of Kolhapur and Thana most probably acknowledged his authority over them. Guhalladeva II reign as per the Swaiverem plate is dated 1038 A.D. He most probably assisted his father in his conquests and his reign synchronized with that of his father. There is a mention of Viravarmadeva, elder brother of Jayakeshi I, ruling before him for a short period.

He is mentioned in his Gudikattiu (Dharwad) Stone inscription. There are two copper plate grants namely Gopaka grant of A.D. 1053 and the Panaji plate of A.D. 1059. Then we have stone inscriptions, namely, the Panjanikhani stone inscription of 1054 A.D. and the Raia stone inscription of A.D. 1071. He is said to have married his daughter to the Chalukya Emperor Vikramankadeva VI in 1076 A.D. His was a prominent role in not only building the Kadamba Empire but also consolidating it with matrimonial alliances as well as the prosperity and trade which developed in his time. The Kadambas had trade relations with fourteen countries (Gopaka plate). He made Gopakapattana as his capital and the city developed into a splendid St Cajetan Church and Convent in Old Goacity of the times in the Area. The Arab merchant Commander Chhaddama was made Governor of Gopaka. Guhalladeva III (1081 to 1125 A.D.) succeeded Jayakesha I as mentioned in the Narendra inscription of A.D. 1125. The Alnavara stone inscription states that at the beginning of his reign he ruled over Konkan, Palasige, Kundur, Unkal, Sabbi, Haive, Utsugrame, Kadaravali, Kontakuli and Kavaded VipaSavalaksha. The Tegur (Dharwad) inscription states that he ruled over Konkan and Palasige. There are the Mugad Stone inscription of A.D. 1125, the Madakai Monnalli (Dharwad) inscription of 1096 A.D.; the Malakanakoppa stone inscription of A.D. 1103 and the Nigadi (Dharwad) stone inscription of A.D. 1111. All these give us ideas of his rule and the extent of his Empire. Jayakeshi II (1104 to 114748 A.D.) ruled perhaps for some time along with his uncle Guhalladeva III. His father Vijayaditya was the younger brother of Guhalladeva III and might have shared power with him. Jayakesha II was a very ambitious ruler who taking advantage of the fact that the Chalukya Emperor Vikramaditya was old declared Independence. He was, however, subdued by Sinda Achuge II a feudatory of the Chalukya Emperor Vikramaditya VI and recognised the Chalukya overlordship. Goa was put to flames in this war. He, later, married the daughter of Vikramaditya VI. The power of the Kadambas reached its height under Jayakeshi II. In A.D. 112526, his kingdom comprised of Konkan, Palasige, Unkal, Sabbi, Kontakulli, Hangal, Ulsugrame, Kadaravalli, Palagunde, Velugrame (Belgaum). Haive (N. Kanara) and Kavadidvipa Savalakha as per the Narendra Inscription. It seems that Jayakeshi II on the death of Vikramadiya VI declared himself independent. He was, however, once again subdued by Sinda Perma I of Yelburga, the feudatory of Chalukya Emperor Someshvara III. Jayakesha II was a good administrator who was helped by his ministers and generals to rule his kingdom. The Narendra (1125 A.D.) records mention his Ministers. The Asage Copper Plate (A.D. 1133) grant and the Dharwad (A.D. 114647) stone inscription mentions his deeds of charity. Jayakeshi II was succeeded by Shivachitta Permadideva (114781 A.D.). Vijayadya II, his younger brother, assisted him and ruled jointly. Kamaladevi, the wife of Shivachittapermadideva was a great patron of the Arts and built the famous Temples at Degamve (Sampagaon). She also founded many Centres of learning. We knows about the reign of Permadi from the inscription at Siddapur (Sampagaon) of A.D. 1158. We also have the inscription in the Nrishimha Temple of Halshir (Khanapur Taluka) dated A.D. 117172 and the Deganve (Sampagaon) inscription dated A.D. 1174. Various grants made by him are noted in these inscriptions. He remained loyal to the Chalukyas till the Kalachuris brought their down fall about A.D. 1156. Later on, he seems to have declared independence. There was prosperity and Trade and Commerce flourished during his period. His brother Vijayaditya II (118088 A.D.) took over the reins of Government on his death. As mentioned earlier, he was jointly ruling with his elder brother till about A.D. 1180. The times were turbulent with both the Kalachuri and the Hoysalas divvying for supremacy. Later on, the Yadavas and the Hoysalas struggled for power after the Hoysalas defeated the Kalachuris. The Goa Kadambas were considerably weakened during the reign of Vijayaditya II.

Jayakeshi III (118687 to 1216 A.D.) succeeded Vijayaditya II. A stone in­scription in the Prince of Wales Mu­seum dated 1185—86 indicates this. We also have the Kirihalasinge (near Khanpur) copper plate dated A.D. 118687; the Hanagudi (Dharwad Ta­luka) stone inscription dated 118889 A.D.; The Kittur (Sampagaon) stone inscription dated 118889 A.D. and the Copper Plate grant dated A.D. 1209. All these give us details of grants made by him as well as other details of his reign. A stone inscription in the fort Dodvad (Sampagaon) states that Viravajradeva the son of Jayakeshi III who was ruling co jointly with him, died in a fierce battle. He was suc­ceeded by his brother Tribhuvanamalla alias Sovideva.

Sovideva (121238 A.D.), seems to have ruled independently till the Yadavas Emperor Singhana II ex tended the Empire. About 1220 A.D. Sovideva seems to have lost his king dom to the Yadavas. From the Kasar pale plates we learn that for about 12 years, the Kadamjba Kingdom was ruled by the Yadavas. After this period, Sovideva was reinstated Shasthadeva III (A.D. 124764) succeeded Sovideva about A.D. 1247. We have the Goa plates of Shashthadeva dated A.D. 1250. The Bandora (Goa) Gadivare copper plate dated A.D. 1262 and a stone inscription at Bankapur (Dharwad) dated A.D. 126364. The plates and inscriptions give us details of grants made by him as well as the extent of his area and rule.

The Kadambas Rule in Goa seems to have ended a little later after Kamadev (12621300 A.D.) who seems to have married a daughter of So­videva. It was during this period that Allauddin Khilji invaded and extracted tribute from Ramchander, the Yadava King of Devagiri. Finally, Malik Kafur invaded the India Old Goa colonial era Viceroy s ArchDeccan and the Kadam­bas rule ended in Goa around 1312 A.D. It is possible that the Kadambas regained, their lost kingdom during 13271336 A.D. Ibu Batuta records that the Nawab of Honavar invaded in 1342 A.D. and sacked Chandrapur, but was perhaps finally defeated by the Ka­dambas. The Corgao copper plate of 1351 A.D. records that King Bhimabhupal was ruling over Konkan from Govapuri. So perhaps the kings of this family ruled over portions of Goa during that period. In Deccan at this time the Vijayanagar Empire and the Bahmani Kingdom were founded. Parts of Goa by 1347 A.D. were in­cluded in the Vijayanagar Empire. A portion became part of the Bahmani Kingdom. The two kingdoms were at constant warefarawith each other. In 1368 A.D., Bukka I (135079 A.D.) of Vijayanagar was defeated by the Bah­mani King Muhammed Shah (135875 A.D.). Goa seems to have been devas­tated by the Muhammedans. Goa was captured by Madhax, in April 1380 A.D. from the Bahmani Kingdom. Af­ter this annexation of Goa territory to the Vijayanagar Empire, Govapuri was made the capital and Madhav is re­ferred to as 'Lord of Goa' in an in­scription of 1389 A.D. For about 50 years, Madhav dominated Goa. When he was made a Ruler, Narahari Mantri was made Viceroy of Goa in April 1391 A.D. In 1395 A.D. he was suc­ceeded by a Brahmin of Atreyagotra called Baichanna Vodeyar. Konkan was consolidated by him and he ex­tended the Vijayanagar rule to Belgaum district and parts of Kolhapur district. A stone inscription of 1425 A.D. records the grants made by the Vijayanagar Emperor. Various admin­istrators of Goa are mentioned as Vice­roy of Goa. After 1450 A.D., no docu­ment mentions the names of any Vice­roy of Goa. It seems that from this period till the conquest of Goa by the Bahmani ruler in 1472 A.D. Goa was ruled by independent Naiks like the other outside districts of Vijayanagar Empire.

The Bahmani Kings tried three times to conquer Goa in the 15th Century. In 1429 A.D., Maliku Sujja conquered Goa and the Konkan Chiefs accepted the Bahmani Supermacy. Five years later the Raygad and Vishalgad chiefs again became independent. In 1436 A.D., there was a second expedition of the Bahmanis which brought these chiefs in subjugation again but this was once again a shortlived affair. In 1453 A.D., there was another expedi­tion and the Forts above the Sahyadris were captured. However, the Ma­ratha Chief regrouped and the Mus­lim army was defeated. The local chiefs gathered large fleets and regularly plundered the Mecca pilgrims and the trade ships. The Bahmani Emperor sent an expedition against Goa in A.D. 1469 under Mahmud Gawan. It took 3 years to subdue Goa. Finally after the Forts around were conquered. Goa was at­tacked. It was annexed to the Bahmani Kingdom in 1472 A.D. The seasaw struggle between the Vijayanagar Empire and the Bahmani Kingdom continued and Goa was affected by it. In 1472 A.D., the Vijayanagar ar­mies tried to regain their lost terri­tory. However, they lost the impor­tant fortress of Belgaum instead to the Bahmani armies. Gawan who was a very able Minister divided the Bah­mani Kingdom into eight provinces. The area from Junnar to Goa comprised one of these provinces. After 1485 A.D., a number of hill forts were subjugated by the Bahmani armies. Around 1490 A.D., the Governor of Konkan Bahadur Gilani declared independence. In 1439 A.D., he was defeated and killed by Yusuf Adil Khan of Bijapur who was sent with an army by Mahmud Shah Bahmani. When the Bahmani Kingdom broke up into 4 Kingdom, Goa became a part of the Bijapur.

Kingdom. EinulMulk Gilani who had been made Governor of Goa by Mahmud Shah after the death of Bahadur Gilani continued to be the Governor of Goa till Adil Shah took over Konkan from him in 1502 A.D. In 1510 A.D. the Portuguese conquered Goa.

The Portuguese when they came to India were not merely traders. They came with crusading zeal. They had just barely ousted the Moors from Granada in 1492 when eighteen years later Afonso de Albuquerque's fleet sailed up the Mandovi River and conquered Goa. The Portuguese Commander was courageous and romantic and with a fleet of only 23 ships and 1200 men he boldly attacked. Timoja, the Commander of the Vijayanagar fleet, is stated to have invited Albuquerque to attack and takeover Goa. Thus on 3rd March 1510, the Portuguese became masters of Goa a flourishing port and town. The public seem to have welcomed them as they were quite disgusted with the Adil Shah rule.

However, by May 16, Ismail Adil Shah sent a strong army to regain Goa. The Portuguese were put to flight as they were far out numbered. On May 20, Albuquerque sailed in his ships and laid anchor at the widest pLighthouse at a fort Fort Aguada Goa Indiaoint on the River opposite Panaji. In October, he fled to the sea and was reinforced by a fresh fleet and men from Portugal. He again attacked Goa. A contested battle was fought and he reconquered Goa on 15.11.1510. However, he lost a lot of men in the battle. There was a general massacre of the Muslims and over six thousand perished. The pressure still continued from the Bijapur armies. When in April 1511 Albuquerque left Goa to attack Malacca, the Portuguese were attacked by Puladh Khan. He ousted Helrao and Timoja from the Rosal Khan surrendered just. One day before the arrival of reinforcement and Goa was saved for the Portuguese. Both Bijaipur and Vijayanagar wanted a regular supply of horses from the Portuguese. The Vijayanagar Emperor offered to help the Portuguese against Adil Shah. In turn Adil Shah who also wanted the horses sent his emissary to the Portuguese. As such both did not do anything to oust the Portuguese who consolidated their hold. When Albuquerque died on December 15, 1515, he had managed to ensure that the Portuguese were well settled. War broke out with Adil Shah in 1516. Goa was surrounded by the Adil Shah forces. However, reinforcements arrived and Adil Shah retreated. In 1520, war broke out between Adil Shah and the Vijayanagar Empire. The Portuguese taking advantage of the situation captured Bardez, Ponda and Salcete. Two years later, however, Adil Shah recovered back his territory.

The Governor of Belgaum, Ashad Khan, rebelled against Adil Shah in 1532. He sought help from the Portuguese and in turn handed over Bardez and Salcete. In 1534, however, the Shah died to be succeeded by his son Ismail. He happened to be a friend of Ashad Khan. So Ashad Khan gaining strength from this event attacked the Portuguese on their refusal to return Bardez and Salcete. In 1536, Ashad Khan attacked with a very strong force. The Portuguese, sought peace and after destroying the newly built fort at Rachol in Salcete, handed, back to Ashad Khan both Salcete and Bardez. In the meanwhile, the Portuguese ac quired Diu from the Shah of Gujarat. Soon however the relations became strained between Ashad Khan and Ibrahim Adil Shah. Now both of them sought the help of the Portuguese who brought in Mir Ali, a rival of Ibrahim from Diu. At this Ibrahim Adilshah attacked Ashad Khan and sent an envoy to the Portuguese. The Portuguese, however, agreed to the offer of Salcete and Bardez made to them by Ibrahim. Thus, in 1543, these areas finally came under the Portuguese rule. This completed the "Old Conquests". In 1570, the kingdoms of Bijapur and Ahmednagar joined in an alliance with the Samudri of Calicut to drive out the Portuguese from the shores of India. The plan was to independently but simultaneously attack the Portuguese on all side in the territories earmarked for conquest by each. The Portuguese under the very able leadership of Luis de Ataide defeated all the attacks launched against them from various directions including the attack of Adil Shah against Goa.


Lighthouse at a fort Fort Aguada Goa IndiaMissionaries came simultaneously along with the soldiers in Goa. Even before the "Old Conquest was completed, the missionaries started their process of Christianizing the populace of Goa. Following the prevailing view in Europe, it became the official policy of the King of Portugal to convert the people of Goa to the Catholic faith. As early as in 1514, Goa was made a part of the diocese of Funchal, a town in the island of Maderira of the North West coast of Africa. By the end of 1517, nine Franciscan friars arrived in Goa and the coversions began. The Jesuits followed soon in 1542 and the Dominicans in 1548. In 1537, Fr. Joao D' Albuquerque was appointed first Bishop of Goa. Four years later, a seminary was set up in Goa. When Governor Martin De Souza arrived in Goa in 1542, he was accompanied by St. Francis Xavier

Even before St. Francis Xavier came to Goa, a policy of persecution was started in 1540 when a decision was taken to destroy temples and mosques. Many laws were passed between 154045 to curtail and reduce the religious functions of non Christians. In the Island of Goa, no temple or mosque was left by 1545. In 1567, the temples of Bardez and Salcete were destroyed. St. Francis Xavier did not stay for long in Goa. He came in May 1542 and left for Kerala in September. In 1543, he came to Goa for a few weeks only, and again for a couple of months in 1552. On his way to China, he died on 25th November 1552. His undamaged body was brought to Goa and installed in St. Pauls church. On 12th March 1622, Pope Gregory XV canonized him. In 1624, the body was transferred to the Cathedral of Bom Jesus where it lies till today. This has made Goa a centre of Catholic pilgrimage.

The beginning of the Inquisition in Goa started in 1560. Aimed primarily against the new converts to Christianity, it also took action against any Hindu practicing, his. religion openly. The inquisition was a Tribunal presided over by the 'Grant Inquisitor' a judge sent from Portugal. Even the Governor of Goa did not have control over him. He and his two other judges framed their own codified rules and laws. The terror it spread and the misery it caused is unprecedented. It went on for two hundred years and many a so called heretic was burned alive under its orders. Finally under the pressure of the British, it was abolished on 16th June 1812. The Palace of the Inquisition is now destroyed and all that remains is a table said to have belonged to it. There is a chair in a private collection. However, one more relic of the Inquisition is the Cross with a beautifully executed figure of Christ. It is almost life like and preserved in the Chapel of St. Sebastian in Panjim. It is a unique representation where the head is erect and the eyes open.

Old Portuguese Fort Cabo da Rama South Goa Goa IndiaAlong with the Inquisition, the efforts of the Portuguese continued to convert the local populace. The Archbishop of Goa also had control over Cochin and Malacca. From time to time, meetings known as Provincial Councils were held by the Archbishop. The first Council was held in 1567. This was followed by Councils in 1575, 1585, 1592 and 1606. Repression and conversions continued till about the end of the 16th century. After that the zeal of the Portuguese lessened. At any rate, Goa had a Christian population of about 50,000 by the beginning of the 17th century. Daman also had a small Christian population, while Diu had none.

Events in Europe soon took their toll against the Portuguese in India. In 1580, Portugal came under the Spanish Rule. This domination' continued till 1640. The Dutch were fighting against the Spanish to free themselves from their rule. They were very good sailors. This fight spread to the colonies and in India, the Dutch posed a serious challenge to the Portuguese. The English also had their differences with the Spanish in Europe and helped the Dutch. Initially, the Dutch sent out trading fleets in 1597, 1598 and 1601. In 1604, the Dutch blocked Goa from the sea. They also entered into an Alliance with the Samundri of Calicut against the Portuguese. Henceforth blocking of Goa by the Dutch fleet became a regular feature every year. Thus they stopped the free movement of the Portuguese ships from Mandovi river. This caused great damage to the Portuguese. Their commerce suffered very badly and they lost most of their territories. In 1614, the Mughal Emperor sought the help of the Dutch fleet to attack Diu and Daman. However before anything could come out of it, there was peace between the Mughals and the Portuguese. Muhammed Adil Shah entered into a Treaty with the Dutch against the Portuguese. The outcome of this Treaty, however, was not much as the Kingdom of Bijapur was not strong enough by this time to do much. However, the Dutch blackade of Goa regularly continued during the period 15361641. The Portuguese lost their best 3 warships in a Dutch raid on Mormugoa harbour in 1639. As many as over 4000 men and 155 ships are estimated to have been lost to the Duch during 16291635. This weakened the Portuguese so much that they lost territories in India, and Ceylon to the Dutch by 1640. There was a truce for 10 years from 1641 to 1651, but war continued between the Dutch and Portuguese in India and Ceylon till 1644. The Dutch ships blockaded Goa from sea between 1641 and 1644. In 1648, a peace treaty was signed in Europe between the Duth and the King of Spain. However, the state of war continued in the East between, the Dutch and the Portuguese. By the time, peace came in 166869, the Portuguese had lost the whole of Ceylon and forts and territories South of Goa as well as other areas, except Diu, Daman and Bassein. The Spanish yoke in Europe thus proved disastrous for the commercial and territorial aspirations of the Portuguese in the East.

Even before the Dutch interlude was over, the Portuguese had to face the might of the Maratha Empire. Shivaji, while consolidating his hold against the Mughals, also attacked the Bijapur Sultan with skillfully planned gurrilla raids, he managed to acquire many strongholds of the Bijapur Sultan's. While some areas on the borders of Goa were administered directly by the Sultan of Bijapur, areas like Bicholim and Pernem were ruled by Desais who were vassals of the Sultan. Shivaji in 1664 took possession of Kudal The Basilica of Bom Jesus built 1594 Old Goa UNESCO World Heritage Site Goa India AsiaBicholim and Pernem and thus acquired a common border with Goa. The Sultan of Bijapur was in no position to help the Desais and they fled to Bardez for shelter. An attack on Goa by Shivaji seemed imminent but while Shivaji attacked territories south of Goa, he did not challenge the Portuguese. Perhaps the Mughal attack under Mirza Raja Jai Singh on Shivaji saved the day for the Portuguese who saw with great relief the departure of the army of Shivaji towards the North. The next two years saw Shivaji busy with Mughal army under Jai Singh. After that a series of clashes occurred at the Goa borders. Shivaji's complaint was that the Desais were making raids into their former territories from the safety of Bardez. When Shivaji's patience wore thin, he carried out a punitive raid into Bardez in 1667. The Marathas plundered the villages at will and are said to have taken away as many as 1600 prisoners. The Portuguese hastily entered into a Treaty with Shivaji and along with other things promised to control the Desais. The prisoners were released. Next year, Shivaji again camped in Bicholim. Over 500 of his agents were driven away by the Portuguese who it seems discovered the plot to takeover Goa just in time. In 1666, Shivaji also attacked Ponda which was garisoned by the Adil Shah troops. The Desais and the Portuguese aided these troops to successfully resist Shivaji. When in 1672, Shivaji conquered the Raja of Ramnagar near Daman, he demanded the tribute due to the Raja from the Portuguese of Daman. The Portuguese delayed the payment of the tribute and also helped the Raja of Ramnagar to continue the struggle. However, in 1677, Shivaji finally defeated the Raja. He now prepared to attack Goa. In the meantime in 1675, Shivaji had again besieged Ponda and conquered it in spite of the aid sent by the Portuguese in Goa to the Sultans troops in Ponda. All was ready when the untimely death of Shivaji in 1680 saved the Portuguese.

The next two years Sambhaji spent on consolidating his own position against his rival Rajaram. He, therefore, made peace overtures to the Portuguese. However, no peace treaty was signed and in 1682 Sambhaji prepared to attack Anjediva. The Portuguese hastily fortified Anjediva in spite of Sambhaji's protests. When in 1682 the Mughals attacked Sambhaji, the Portuguese permitted the Mughal armies to pass through their territories.

Church of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception Panjim Goa IndiaSambhaji attacked and looted the Portuguese villages and the Portuguese in turn attacked some Maratha ships. The Portuguese also refused to pay the tribute for Daman under the plea that Sambhaji did not control the entire territory of the Raja of Ramnagar. In January 1683 a Mughal envoy came to the Portuguese and proposed a combined attack on Sambhaji. The Portuguese accepted most of the other terms proposed by the Mughals but did not agree to enter into a war against Sambhaji. In the middle of 1683, Sambhaji attacked and took over Chaul. The Portuguese attacked Ponda. However, Sambhaji was able to reinforce his troops in Ponda and defeated the Portuguese. He then attacked the Portuguese fort of Juve and took it over. Later, he attacked Bardez and also tookover the Forts of Tivim and Chapora. Salcete was also occupied the same day when Bardez was takenover. All seemed to be over for the Portuguese who were in no position to oppose Sambhaji. However, once again a Mughal attack on Sambhaji saved the day for the Portuguese. The Mughal Army entered Konkan and Bicholim. Sambhaji vacated Bardez and Salcete and entered into a Treaty with the Portuguese. Later on, both the Portuguese and Sambhaji did not stick to the provisions of this Treaty. Sambhaji continued to retain the Fort of Bardez and reinforced his troops at Ponda in preparation for an assault on Goa. However, Sambhaji died in 1689 when Aurangzeb got him killed. Aurangzeb wanted the Portuguese to entered into a Treaty with Shivaji and along with other things promised to control the Desais. The prisoners were released. Next year, Shivaji again camped in Bicholim. Over 500 of his agents were driven away by the Portuguese who it seems discovered the plot to takeover Goa just in time. In 1666, Shivaji also attacked Ponda which was garisoned by the Adil Shah troops. The Desais and the Portuguese aided these troops to successfully resist Shivaji. When in 1672, Shivaji conquered the Raja of Ramnagar near Daman, he demanded the tribute due to the Raja from the Portuguese of Daman. The Portuguese delayed the payment of the tribute and also helped the Raja of Ramnagar to continue the struggle. However, in 1677, Shivaji finally defeated the Raja. He now prepared to attack Goa. In the meantime in 1675, Shivaji had again besieged Ponda and conquered it in spite of the aid sent by the Portuguese in Goa to the Sultans troops in Ponda. All was ready when the untimely death of Shivaji in 1680 saved the Portuguese.

The next two years Sambhaji spent on consolidating his own position against his rival Rajaram. He, therefore, made peace overtures to the Portuguese. However, no peace treaty was signed and in 1682 Sambhaji prepared to attack Anjediva. The Portuguese hastily fortified Anjediva in spite of Sambhaji's protests. When in 1682 the Mughals attacked Sambhaji, the Portuguese permitted the Mughal armies to pass through their territories.

Se Cathedral is largest Church in Goa This interior is one of the altars Old Goa India AsiaSambhaji attacked and looted the Portuguese villages and the Portuguese in turn attacked some Maratha ships. The Portuguese also refused to pay the tribute for Daman under the plea that Sambhaji did not control the entire territory of the Raja of Ramnagar. In January 1683 a Mughal envoy came to the Portuguese and proposed a combined attack on Sambhaji. The Portuguese accepted most of the other terms proposed by the Mughals but did not agree to enter into a war against Sambhaji. In the middle of 1683, Sambhaji attacked and took over Chaul. The Portuguese attacked Ponda. However, Sambhaji was able to reinforce his troops in Ponda and defeated the Portuguese. He then attacked the Portuguese fort of Juve and took it over. Later, he attacked Bardez and also took over the Forts of Tivim and Chapora. Salcete was also occupied the same day when Bardez was taken over. All seemed to be over for the Portuguese who were in no position to oppose Sambhaji. However, once again a Mughal attack on Sambhaji saved the day for the Portuguese. The Mughal Army entered Konkan and Bicholim. Sambhaji vacated Bardez and Salcete and entered into a Treaty with the Portuguese. Later on, both the Portuguese and Sambhaji did not stick to the provisions of this Treaty. Sambhaji continued to retain the Fort of Bardez and reinforced his troops at Ponda in preparation for an assault on Goa. However, Sambhaji died in 1689 when Aurangzeb got him killed. Aurangzeb wanted the Portuguese to help him in tackling and capturing Rajaram succeeded Sambhaji. All the Marathas joined hands with Rajaram. Even the Konkan Desais forgot their quarrels with Sambhaji and joined Rajaram. The Portuguese did not agree to the request of the Mughals to arrest the families of the Desais who joined forces with Rajaram. The Portuguese now decided that Rajaram was better than the Mughals, but did not openly defy either. In 1694, a Maratha force entered Bardez and looted at will. The Portuguese Viceroy nearly declared war, but peace. Was finally declared. This lasted till Rajaram died in 1700.

The Mughals had captured Ponda in 1689. In 1702, the Marathas attacked Ponda. The Portuguese sent the Bhonsle of Kudal to assist the Mughals. Bhonsle even occupied Ponda for himself but the Mughals recovered it in 1705. Thus, the Marathas were once again kept at bay. The Mughal Maratha war ended with the death of Aurangzeb in 1707. For the next 30 years, Goa was left in peace by the Marathas who concentrated on their internal quarrels and expansion towards the North.

In 1737, the Portuguese Governor of Bassein helped a rebel Maratha Commander against the Peshwa. This provoked the Marathas to attack Bassein, and take the areas around it. The siege took 3 years. To prevent the Portuguese from helping, the Marathas also attacked Goa. In 1739, Salcete, Margoa, Sanguem, Ponda and Quepem were occupied by the Marathas. Only the Forts of Margoa and Rachol remained with the Portuguese. Simultaneously the Raja of Sawantwadi who had joined hands with the Marathas occupied the whole of Bardez except the Forts of Aguada and Reis Magos. Thus, having lost more than two thirds of Goa, the Portuguese sued for peace. Bassein and the area around were handed over but the Marathas in turn withdrew from Goa. The Raja of Sawantwadi only withdrew after being gifted the villages of Pirna and Cor juem. This peace only lasted for one year. Bhonsle attacked Aguada Fort in February 1741. The Portuguese retained Aguada as well as Reis Magos but lost the rest of Bardez. Bhonsle however, could not enter Goa as an English Fleet chance to come to Aguada. The English helped the Portuguese to defend themselves. However in May 1741, the new Viceroy Marques de lourical arrived at Goa with six warships and fresh troops. He attacked Bhonsle and retook Bardez. Bhonsle sought peace and had to return Corjuem, Panelim and Pirna.

Statue near Church of St Cajetan Old Goa IndiaIn 1742, the Chhatrapati of Kolhapur decided to attack the King of Sonda. The Maratha General Govindaparita Thakur attacked and occupied Sanguem and Ponda. He even asked the Portuguese to pay the outstanding tribute. The Portuguese in turn attacked and tookover the Fort of Sanguem. The Sonda General also attacked Ponda. Later, the Portuguese themselves attacked and took over Ponda and returned these territories to the Raja of Sonda. In April 1746, the Portuguese attacked Bhonsle. They were assisted by the Raja of Sonda. The Fort of Alorna was capatured by the Portuguese and then Bicholim was occupied. The Ranes of Sanquelim and other feudatories of Bhonsle namely Gaur of Manerim, Raghunath Prabhu of Bicholim and Kushtube Dessai of Advoi, all joined the Portuguese. Bhonsle sought peace but the Portuguese passed on and took Tracol and Reddi. Even the Peshwa Balaji Bajirao could not help Bhonsle much except to mediate. However, during the period 1754 56, the Portuguese returned Reddi and Neutim to Bhonsle. However, Bhonsle attacked the Portuguese at Pernem, Sanquelim and Maneri in 1756. He also beseiged Bicolim and Tiraco. The warfare continued till a Treaty was concluded under the mediation of the Peshwa Balaji Bajirao in 1759. Pernem, Bicholim and Sanquelim were returned to Bhonsle. He, however, was still not satisfied and appealed to the King of Portugal in 1760, who accepted the appeal and ordered the Viceroy to return the rest of Bhonsle territories. Accordingly, a fresh Treaty was signed and Bhonsle got back his territory.

War broke out in the meanwhile between the Portuguese and the Raja of Sonda. The Raja of Sonda had helped the English establish a factory in Karwar. This was not liked by the Portuguese. They attacked the Raja in May 1752. The Portuguese entered Ponda and Zambaulim. Later Sadashivgad and Kurmagad were attacked. The Raja's attack on Salcete and Anjediva was defeated. A treaty was concluded only in 1755. The territory of Sonda was returned but he agreed to pay for the cost of the war and transfer three villages. The vil lages were not transferred. In April 1756, the Peshwa sent an army against the Raja of Sonda. The Raja could only pay a part of the tribute and agreed to hand over Ponda as security for die rest of the amount. The Portuguese did not relish the idea and sought 19 takeover Ponda themselves. However, the Marathas occupied the Fort first The Portuguese attacked but were badly mauled by the Marathas The Viceroy himself was killed.

In 1761, in the North the Maratha army was defeated and destroyed in the Battle of Panipat. The Portuguese taking advantage of the weakness of the Marathas entered into an agreement with Bhonsle and the Raja of Sonda to retake Ponda. In May 1763 the combined forces of the Portuguese and Bhonsle retook Ponda. The Raje of Sonda did not give any help, as such the Portuguese garrisoned Ponda but allowed the Raja to retain nominal sovereignty.

India Goa Bom Jesus church High AltarOne day, however in January 1764 the Portuguese Viceroy found the Raja of Sonda sitting as a refugee in Goa. Hyder Ali had trained his eyes on the territories of Sonda and his General attacked the Raja, who fled and sought the Portuguese help. In return he offered to place the districts of Ponda, Zambaulim and Canacona for safe custody with the Portuguese. Nothing could suit them better. The Portuguese Viceroy took a bold decision and sent troops to the Districts. Hyder Ali Mysore responded with his cutomary zeal and captured the Fort of Sadashivgad. He also attacked the Portuguese by sea, but this attack failed. The war would have gone on but once again events favoured the Portuguese. Hyder Ali had to withdraw the end of 1765 to fight the combined army of the English and the Marathas. Thus, in 1764, Ponda, Sanguem, Quepem and Canacona became Portuguese territories with the erstwhile rule a refugee in Goa. The King of Sonda did try to recover his territory with the help of the Peshwa. However, the Portuguese did not exactly appreciate this and forced him in January 17 1771 to cede Ponda on permanent basis to them.

In June 1781, the Chhatrapati of Kolhapur invaded Sawantwadi. The Peshwa was in no position to help Bhonsle. He turned towards the Portuguese for help instead of doing that, the Portuguese sent troops who occupied Sanquelim and Bicholim. The Bhonsle regrouped and attacked and captured Gululem, Maneri, Mencurem, Sal and Dumacem However, the Portuguese reinforcements arrived and forced Bhonsle to retreat. Pernem was invaded in March 1783 and the Fort of Alorna was captured by the Portuguese. At this stage, Bhonsle sought peace, to which the Portuguese readily agreed but without return of the conquered territories.

In 1785 the Kolhapur troops again attacked Bhonsle. He sought the Portuguese help and in return agreed to cede the rest of Pernam. Thus, by 1788, the New Conquest was completed and the Portuguese consolidated their hold and lands in Goa. The Portuguese rule was not liked by the majority of the Hindus who resented the religious intolerance of the Portuguese. The activities of the Inquisition also added to the resentment. Even the converted Christains as time meant by came to the treated as inferior citizens. All this led to series of revolts against the Portuguese. The first of these revolts occurred in 1787 and is known in history as the Pinto Conspiracy. History of GoaThe economy of Goa had been shattered by the various conflicts.

The ruling class wanted to maintain their position and thus reserved for themselves all the key positions in Civil, Military and Ecclesiatical departments. This led to great resentment amongst the locals who were equally well trained and educated. India Goa Old Goa The Sé Cathedral at first lightThe Dominicans, Franciscans and Jesuits predominated in all walks of life. The local clergy and laity joined hands to overcome this. Two learned local priests Cae teno Francisco Couto of Panaji and Jose Antonio Gonsalves of Divar were not made Bishops because of the color of their skin. They want to Portugal to plead their case. The Portuguese Government had in 1774 issued Special Instructions on the subject but these had been ignored. Frustrated in their efforts, the priests had met Abbe Faria who inspired the two priests to overthrow the supremacy of the white rule in Goa. On return, other disgruntled elements in the army joined the plot. A Father Pinto offered his house to the conspirators. The date for the uprising was fixed, but the Portuguese came to know of the plot in time. Over forty seven persons including seventeen priests and seven army officers were caught and punished for treason. A few managed to escape to Bombay. Thus ended the first Freedom attempt known as the Pinto Revolt.

The British had always eyed Goa as a possible area to control. When the Napoleonic war broke out in Europe, its repurcussions took place in India also. The British were determined to control the French influence in India, if not eliminate it. They offered to help the Portuguese to defend themselves against the French and Hyder Ali of Mysore. In 1798, the British Admiral Reiner arrived with four ships to help the Portuguese. They politely refused the help. Next year, a British Army landed and occupied Fort Aguada. Parts of the army remained as late as 1815. In 1839, the English again tried to takeover Goa by complaining that the Portuguese were helping rebels from the British India. When this was refuted, the English offered to buy the Portuguese territories in India. Lisbon again refused to oblige. In 1842, the Raja of Sawantwadi rebelled against the English. He was defeated but given shelter by the Portuguese. An English army entered Goa and Captain Arthur threatened to blow up the Panaji Palace. Once again the Portuguese stood firm and frustrated the attempts of the English.

The Ranes Revolt lasted sparodically for a number of years between 1852 1912. The Ranes of Satari Mahal were on borders between Sawantwadi State and Goa. The Ranes trace out their original habitant in Rajasthan. They claim to be descendents of a Kshatri yaclan of Rajasthan. Their customs and rites are different from those of the other ruling class of Gomantaka. They carried out for nearly 60 years a sparodic struggle against the Portuguese rule. Their exploits have now become a part of the folklore of the Area and even today villages sing of "Kustoba Rane" who was a sort of Robin Hood hero of the area.

In 1851, the Portuguese government in Goa imposed taxes upon the inams and mokas. They also forced ladies to wear alien clothes. The soldiers who were sent to enforce these decrees misbehaved with the ladies under the garb of inspections. Dipajee Rane rallied the people of Satari around him in 1852 and rebelled against the Portuguese rule. In a surprise attack Dipajee Rane captured the fort of Nanus. He thus got hold of a great deal of arms and ammunitions. The Portuguese were soon driven out of Satari. The landlords of the neighboring areas like the Dessais and Gaonkar's joined him. This army soon liberated Quepem, Canacona, Hamad Barshe and Bhat agroma. The Portuguese army was kept at bay with excellent guerrilla warfare tactics. The Governor himself took the field against Dipaji but failed to achieve anything against the local hero. Three years of military efforts on the part of the Portuguese failed to achieve any results. In 1855, the Portuguese Government entered into a treaty with Dipaji. The rights of the local village Councils were recognized, the religious dictates were withdrawn and along with other minor concessions, Dipaji was given a ceremonial robe of honour and a sword.

The tradition of rebellion however continued. Kushtoba of Sanquelim rose against the Portuguese. He was helped by Shamba Desai. Like Robin Hood, Kushtobe robbed the rich and helped the poor, both were however taken by surprise and killed in 1871.

Old Portuguese Fort Cabo da Rama South Goa Goa IndiaThe Portuguese soon started fresh repressive measures against the people in Satari. Monopoly system was introduced in land cultivation. This led to great unrest. In 1895, the Portuguese sought to use Goan troops against the Cafri tribe in Portuguese African Colonies. The Hindus feared loss of caste if they went abroad. The Government was adamant. Dada Rane Advaikar became the local point of unrest. The Portuguese also suspected that the writings in a paper run by a missionary Francisco Alvares were also responsible for the unrest. He was banished from Goa. Dada Rane captured first the Port of Nanus. He then made forays into Bardez and looted the: Port agued Treasuries. Soon he was joined by Baba Sawant, the Dessai of Hemad barshe. The combined forces approached Aguada. The Portuguese were most alarmed. The new Governor Joaquim Machado through the me¬diation of Shri Shakaracharya of Sanke shwar accepted all the terms of Dada Rane and all were pardoned. Among the followers of Dada Rane were Pavate Nandkarni and Phato Borkar. These two specialised in looting Government property and treasuries. A few churches were also destroyed. The last revolt of the Ranes was in 1912. The rebels wanted to force the government to modify its repressive taxa¬tion policy. This time the Portuguese responded with great ferocity. The rebellion was suppressed and the leaders deported to Africa.

The Republic was established in Portugal on 5th October, 1910. With it the monarchial rule came to an end. The church was separated from the State. The Hindus of Goa gained religious freedom at par with the Christains for the first time under the Portuguese. A charter was proclaimed in 1917 granting autonomy to Portuguese India. An Advisory Council consisting of nine nominated officials with the Governor as its President. On 1st July, 1918, this Council was suspended There was great protest all around and a mass rally was held in Margoa. In 1920, the Council was formed with seven nominated government officials and eleven members elected by the people. The Council was called the Legislative Council. When dictatorship was declared in Portugal by Salazar in May 28, 1926, once again the Government of the Portuguese Dictator brought repression in Goa. A number of curbs were imposed on civil liberties. The press was severely restricted. However, it was very difficult to turn the clock back. The Goa Congress Committee was formed in 1930. It secretly sent representatives to the Annual Session of the Indian National Congress. In 1936, a branch was formed in Bombay of the Goa Congress. The Quit India Movement in 1942 had its parallel in the Quit Goa Movement. On 18th June, 1945, Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia addressed a meeting in Margoa. This gave a big momentum to the freedom movement in Goa. In 1946, Gandhiji appealed to the Portuguese government to accept the reality and come to honorable terms with the people of Goa. In August 1946, a meeting was held at Londa of Goan political workers. A movement was. Started of mass Civil Disobedience and enmasse defiance of prohibitory orders. Hundreds of people were, arrested and tried by Military Tribunals. The leaders were sentenced to 8 years imprisonment and deported. The satyagrahis were imprisoned for 6 months. In this movement, over 1500 persons were arrested and held in detention. In 1947, repression reached new heights and European troops were brought in to supress the freedom movement. An Azad Gomantak Dal was formed to start an armed struggle for freedom against Portugal. The movement thus went underground. A large number of Goan political leaders were arrested between 1947 and 1953, for offering Satyagraha on 15th August, 2nd October, etc. They were sentenced to imprisonments varying from 15 to 28 years and deported. The Goa Congress held yearly sessions and passed resolutions of independence and integration with India.

At the same time, the militant wing, the Azad Gomantak Dal, attacked Police posts, cut telephone wires and. disrupted the traffic. The volunteers who were caught by the Portuguese were sentenced to 28 years imprisonment and deported. The Azad Gomantak Dal continued its struggle till 1961. In 1953, the negotiations broke down between the Government of India and Portugal regarding transfer of Goa. The Indian Mission was withdrawn from 11th June 1953 Bombay then became the focal point for Goa's freedom. A Goa Action Committee was formed in Bombay in 1953 merging the various nationalistic parties. In June 1954 , the Goa Liberation Council was set up in Bombay. In 1954, a Radio Station was set up to counteract the Portuguese propaganda. Indian newspapers as well as Goa newspapers gave wide publicity to the freedom Struggle. In early 1954, a prominent doctor of Mapusa was arrested and depork d along with his Portuguese wife for making some comments in a party. A series of protests meetings were held all over on this incident. A protest note also went from the Government of India about repressive measures against Goans for professing pro India sentiments. Later, the same year in June, 75 eminent Goans were detained as a security measure so that the protest Satyagraha slated for 15th August should fail. On that day, three batches of Satyagrahis entered Goa from India. They were all arrested. The local poulace also organized Satyagrahis in Pernem, Parcem, Quepem, Zambaulim, Lohem and Poinginim throughout August till November. Hundreds were arrested and imprisoned.

History of GoaChurch of Immaculate Conception PanjimPolitical workers of a new Organization called United Front of Goans entered the village of Dadra near Daman on the night of 21st July, 1954. Ten days later, volunteers of this Organization occupied and liberated Nagar Haveli and Silvassa. By 11th August, the liberation of Nagar Haveli was completed. The Portuguese Administrator of Nagar Haveli crossed over to India. During 1955, the Azad Gomantak Dal continued their attacks on police outposts and many volunteers sacrificed their lives. In 1955, Indian volunteers participated for the first time directly along with the Goan volunteers. The leader of the 6th batch of volunteers from India was put to death by the Portuguese. Two more Indian volunteers were put to death a few days later while crossing the border. On 15th August 1955, over 4000 volunteers cross the borders of Goa. The Portuguese police opened fire and it is reported that 32 persons lost their lives and 225 were injured. This obviously caused great resentment in India. About 1200 volunteers entered into Daman and when the Portuguese police opened fire, one volunteer was killed and three injured. At this stage, the Government of India imposed a ban on entry of volunteers into Goa. The Consulate General of India in Goa was closed down on 1st September, 1955,severing diplomatic relations between the two countries. The Government of India also declared that it was its responsibility to liberate the Portuguese pockets in India. In 1955, Portugal filed in the International Court of Justice in Hague a right of passage case against India. This case continued till April 1960 when the claim of Portugal was rejected.

In August, 1961, the enclaves of Dadra mand Nagar Haveli were made a part of the Indian Union. In November, 1961, a debate of the United Nations General Assembly culminated in Portugal refusing to give details of the conditions in its Indians enclaves as required under the UN Charter. This resulted in the U.N. Trusteeship Committee condemning Lisbon. Finally in December 1961, all preparations were made to free Goa. During the night of 17 18 December, 'Operation Vijay' began. Fairly in the morning, a battalion of Indian troops was within the firing, range of Panaji City. However, they did not cross Mondovi River. An Indian Patrol Party attacked Agunda Fort and a few lives were lost in the battle for the Fort. On 18th December, Indian troops crossed the River Mandovi and occupied the Secretariat and the Police Headquarters. The Navy in the meanwhile blockaded Goa and captured Anjediv Islands. There was some very very selective bombing of a few targets also. The Portuguese troops in Daman however, put up a very stiff fight and surrendered only after air attacks on the morning of 19th December. It must, however, be kept in mind that the Governor General of Goa, Vassaloe Silva disregarded Dr. Salazar's instructions to defend Goa to the last and thus kept the loss of life and property to the minimum. Dr. Salazar, of course, denounced this as an act of treason.

After Goa was liberated, the Commander of the Military forces General Candeth became the Military Governor of Goa. On 8th June, 1962, the first Lieutenant Governor of Goa, Daman and Diu was sworn in after the Indian Parliament passed the Constitution's 12th Amendment Act 1962 integrating the territories of Goa, Daman and Diu with India. On 24th September 1962, an Informal Consultative Council was formed. In October, the same year, Panchayat elections were held and in December General elections were held for the 2 Parliament and thirty Assembly seats. On 20th December, 1962, the first popular Ministry was installed. In January 1967, an Opinion Poll was held in Goa, Daman and Diu to ascertain the wishes of the people whether Goa should merge with Maharashtra and Daman and Diu with Gujarat States. The people voted to remain as a Union Territory. In 1984, Goa became a separate State in the Union of India. Daman and Diu however continued separately as Union territories.

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